Mega Pre RED
What is Mega Pre Red?
Mega Pre Red ushers in the next evolution in delicious-tasting pre workout excellence from Primeval Labs.*
We’ve taken the best elements from each of premium quality pre workouts and combined them into one monster formula that delivers everything you want from a pre workout*:
Much like the original Mega Pre, Mega Pre Red has been designed first and foremost to enhance maximize athletic performance, and that begins with improving blood flow to working muscles.*
No other ingredient accomplishes this goal quite like the amino acid, L-Citrulline. *
L-Citrulline is a nonessential amino that has been shown in scientific research to significantly boost nitric oxide production by increasing plasma levels L-Arginine, the amino acid used by the body to "fuel” nitric oxide production.*
Why can’t I just supplement with L-Arginine then?
Simply put, L-arginine has terrible bioavailability, and the studies that have shown some benefit to supplementing with L-arginine often require large doses of the amino acid (more than you’d find in a pre workout supplement), which also brings with it a lot of unwanted GI distress.*
L-Citrulline, on the other hand, is easy on the GI system, highly bioavailable,, and has been shown to be superior to L-arginine for increasing arginine levels in the blood.*
The end result when supplementing with L-Citrulline is greater nitric oxide production, which promotes greater blood flow along with additional oxygen and nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle. This supports greater performance during training and some pretty sweet muscle pumps, too!*
But, that’s not all.
Other research into L-Citrulline has noted that supplementing with it at a doses of 2.4-6 grams enhances Vo2 kinetics and ATP production which leads to greater endurance and athletic performance![4,5,6]*
Mega Pre Red includes a full 6 gram dose of L-Citrulline as shown to be effective in the human trials.*
Beta Alanine (3.2g)
Beta alanine is a powerful little amino acid that shown to improve endurance, strength, and even lean mass gains.*[9,10,11,12,13]
When skeletal muscles repeatedly contract, hydrogen (H+) ions build up in your muscles which lowers the pH, creating an acidic environment. The more times these muscles contract, the more acid builds up, which not only creates an uncomfortable "burning” sensation deep in the muscle belly, but it also inhibits the muscle’s ability to continue contracting. *
Eventually, too much acid accumulates, and the muscle will no longer contract which means your set is over and gains potentially left on the mat.*
Beta alanine helps increase levels of a powerful intracellular buffer called carnosine that helps clear those acidic ions. This delays the burning sensation, and helps you to keep grinding out more reps during training, ultimately yielding bigger, better gains over time.*
Betaine (trimethylglycine) is a metabolite of choline naturally occurring in a number of plant foods, including beets.
Studies to date conducted in humans show that betaine supplementation may help boost muscle endurance, strength, and lean mass gains.*[14,15]
Researchers believe the power of betaine to significantly increase athletic performance is due in part to its ability to mimic the actions of creatine as well as enhance endogenous creatine production, via methylation of the amino acid homocysteine.*
Essentially, betaine helps improve the production of ATP in muscle cells, which may help you to train harder and longer.*
Additionally, betaine also functions as a natural osmolyte in skeletal muscle. *
Osmolytes are compounds that encourage cells to absorb extra water, which aids hydration and may promote greater stamina during training.*
Choline Bitartrate (2g)
Choline is an essential nutrient that serves a number of roles in the body, as it is involved in cell membrane signaling, lipid metabolism, and cognitive development.*[16,17]
It also serves as the "backbone” for the learning neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which is heavily involved in memory, learning, and cognition. Acetylcholine also is needed for muscle contractions and plays a part in establishing a solid mind-muscle connection during training.*
Mega Pre Red includes not one, but two forms of supplemental choline in choline bitartrate and Alpha GPC.*
Each full serving of Mega Pre Red provides 2 full grams of choline bitartrate to promote greater acetylcholine levels for enhanced focus, concentration and mind-muscle connection during your workouts.*
L-Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid found prevalently in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles. Given its diverse placement in the body, it comes as no surprise that taurine is involved in a number of diverse functions.*
First of note is that taurine helps pull water into muscle cells (due to its osmolytic properties), which improves hydration and promotes endurance. Greater cellular hydration also enhances cell volumization and muscle fullness, which helps produce effects related to anabolism. *
Taurine also stimulates GABA receptors in the brain, which reduces neuronal excitability, to help promote greater focus, cognition and attention.
Alpha GPC 50% (400mg)
We’ve already discussed one of the choline-containing ingredients in Choline bitartrate. Now, it’s time to tackle the other one in Alpha GPC.
Alpha GPC offers the unique advantage in that it avoids breakdown by the choline-hogging liver, which means it can reach the brain and help sustain acetylcholine production, supporting greater performance, mentally and physically.*
In addition to supporting optimal acetylcholine levels, alpha GPC also supplies cells with glycerophosphate, which is a compound in the nerve cell that supports cognitive function.*
Taken together, it comes as no surprise that research has found that supplementing with Alpha GPC may enhance power output, growth hormone levels, and mediate age-related cognitive decline.[20,21]*
Caffeine Anhydrous (350mg)
Caffeine is synonymous with energy, and for good reason. It stimulates the CNS and boosts levels of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine, as you may know, is a neurotransmitter heavily involved in movement and motivation.*
But, caffeine isn’t just for boosting energy and motivation, it’s also a pretty potentl performance-enhancing compound, too. Studies have shown that it can increase energy expenditure as well as strength, endurance, and anaerobic performance (i.e. resistance training).*[22,23,24,25]
Most pre workouts, just pick a random amount of caffeine to include in their pre workouts, but those amounts are quite frequently less than what research has shown to be clinically effective.
The research-backed benefits of caffeine occur with dosages between 3-6 mg of caffeine per kg of bodyweight.
Mega Pre Red contains a TOTAL of 400mg of caffeine per serving from a combination of 350mg of fast-acting caffeine anhydrous alongside 68mg sustained-release Infinergy dicaffeine malate (which yields 50mg caffeine).*
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate (68mg)
Why does Mega Pre Red include two forms of caffeine?
Simply put, we wanted to deliver the best pre workout experience possible, and because of that, we’ve found that combining both immediate and long-lasting caffeine forms provides ample energy and motivation for training while helping avoid any crash commonly experienced with other high-stimulant pre workouts.*
Huperzine A 1% (100mcg)
The final piece Mega Pre Red is the potent nootropic Huperzine A.*
Whereas choline bitartrate and alpha gpc help increase acetylcholine production directly (via increasing levels of choline in the body), Huperzine A indirectly promotes greater acetylcholine levels by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. *
Essentially, huperzine plays "defense” for acetylcholine protection by protecting it from metabolization while choline bitartrate and alpha gpc play "offense” by helping to fuel production of the important neurotransmitter.*
Beyond acetylcholine support, huperzine also serves as a neuroprotectant, defending the brain glutamate (the neuron death molecule), and some evidence suggests it may even help grow new brain cells, a process known as neurogenesis!*
George K. Grimble; Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects of Arginine and Related Amino Acids, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 137, Issue 6, 1 June 2007, Pages 1693S–1701S, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/137.6.1693S
Bahri, S., Zerrouk, N., Aussel, C., Moinard, C., Crenn, P., Curis, E., … Sfar, S. (2013). Citrulline: from metabolism to therapeutic use. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 29(3), 479–484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.07.002
Curis E., et. al; "Citrulline and the gut;”; Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care; September 2007
Bailey SJ, redwell JR, Lord T, Vanhatalo A, Winyard PG, Jones AM. l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Aug 15;119(4):385-95
Gonzales JU, Raymond A, Ashley J, Kim Y. Does L-citrulline supplementation improve exercise blood flow in older adults? Experimental physiology. 2017;102(12):1661-1671. doi:10.1113/EP086587.
Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A. Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy trained men: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13(1):6. doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0117-z.
Schwedhelm E, Maas R, Freese R, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65(1):51–59. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02990.x
Baguet, A et al.; Journal of Applied Physiology; "Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance;” July 2010;” 2005
Gonzales JU, Raymond A, Ashley J, Kim Y. Does l-citrulline supplementation improve exercise blood flow in older adults? Exp Physiol. September 2017. doi:10.1113/EP086587.
Roger C. Harris; et al.; "The effect of a supplement containing ß-alanine on muscle carnosine synthesis, ventilatory threshold and exercise capacity in Korean cyclists, during 12 weeks combined endurance and weight training"
Hill, CA et al.; Amino Acids; "Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity ;” February 2007
Kendrick IP, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids. (2008)
Smith AE, Walter AA, Graef JL, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009;6:5. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-5.
Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, et al. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2010;7:27. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-27.
Trepanowski JF, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Schilling BK, Craig SA, Bloomer RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318217d48d.
Wallace JMW, McCormack JM, McNulty H, et al. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: a randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(7):1264-1271. doi:10.1017/S000711451100674X. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22172554
Cohen BM, Renshaw PF, Stoll AL, Wurtman RJ, Yurgelun-Todd D, Babb SM. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults. An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. JAMA. 1995;274(11):902-907. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7674505
Hoffmann, E.K., I.H. Lambert, and S.F. Pedersen, Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates. Physiol Rev, 2009. 89(1)
Alford, C., H. Cox, and R. Wescott, The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids, 2001. 21(2)
Zeigenfuss T, Landis J, Hofheins J. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008;5(Suppl 1):15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-5-S1-P15.
Bellar D, LeBlanc NR, Campbell B. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:42. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0103-x.
Mora-Rodríguez R, Pallarés JG, López-Samanes Á, Ortega JF, Fernández-Elías VE. Caffeine Ingestion Reverses the Circadian Rhythm Effects on Neuromuscular Performance in Highly Resistance-Trained Men. Bacurau RFP, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e33807. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033807.
Astorino, T. A., Rohmann, R. L., & Firth, K. (2008). Effect of caffeine ingestion on one-repetition maximum muscular strength. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(2), 127–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0557-x
Beck, T. W., Housh, T. J., Schmidt, R. J., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., Coburn, J. W., & Malek, M. H. (2006). The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 506–510. https://doi.org/10.1519/18285.1
Ganio, M. S., Klau, J. F., Casa, D. J., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(1), 315–324. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818b979a
Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., … Antonio, J. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-7-5
Zhao, Q; Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine.; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences; 2002
Ved, H; Huperzine A, a potential therapeutic agent for dementia, reduces neuronal cell death caused by glutamate.; Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; 1997
Ma, T; Huperzine A promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.; State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University; 2013