What is PA Max? PA Max is a 100% all natural muscle builder shown to directly activate mTOR -- the signaling pathway that drives muscle protein synthesis in humans. Research using resistance-trained athletes has noted that supplementing with the ingredient in PA Max leads to significant increases in lean mass gains, strength, and body fat loss.*
What is Phosphatidic Acid? Phosphatidic acid is a naturally occuring phospholipid (glycerol molecule bonded to two fatty acids and one phosphate group) that the body readily synthesized during resistance training, especially eccentric lifting. Phospholipids are a major constituent of cell membranes (including muscle cells), that also act as signaling messengers inside the cell.*
Now, to build muscle, you’ve constantly been told to eat more and more protein in order to support the muscle repair and growth. And, most of us know by now that leucine is the amino acid in protein that serves as the "anabolic trigger” for stimulating muscle protein synthesis. *
But muscles aren’t just made of protein, they’re also made of fats. Specifically, the membranes of the muscle cells and organelles within the cell (such as the mitochondria) are composed of phospholipids.*
When you lift weights, muscle fibers are damaged as a result of the external loading, and in response to this damage, the enzyme phospholipase D senses this damage and produces phosphatidic acid, which a sensor for your muscles to grow. More specifically, phospholipase D degrades phosphatidylcholine into choline and phosphatidic acid, which researchers found directly activates mTOR!*[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
Basically, phosphatidic acid is to lipids what leucine is to protein -- it’s the signal the muscle cell senses and says, "I NEED TO GROW!”*
Mediator Phosphatidic Acid Research Increases Strength Research conducted in resistance-trained athletes (i.e. weightlifters) demonstrated that consuming 750mg of phosphatidic acid daily for 8 weeks, in conjunction with a rigorous resistance training program yielded significant benefits in size and strength.*
Specifically, lifters taking phosphatidic acid increased their squat strength by 12.7% and they also experienced an increase of 2.6% in lean body mass! What’s really interesting to note is that both the placebo and phosphatidic acid group consumed the same number of calories for the entire study.*
But there’s more...
Increases Lean Mass Gains A follow-up study was conducted utilizing the same protocols as the previous study, and again phosphatidic acid delivered the goods. Lifters taking phosphatidic acid added twice as much muscle as the control group.*
As if that wasn’t enough reason to consider supplementing with phosphatidic acid, consider this….
The phosphatidic acid group also increase their leg press strength by an average of 115 pounds, compared to only a 70 pound increase for the control group over the 8 week study!*
Supports Fat Loss One other interesting trend documented in the second human trial was that the phosphatidic acid group lost 2.8 pounds of body fat compared to only 1.1 pounds of fat loss for the control group.*
Supports Recovery Phosphatidic acid has been shown to significantly increase muscle protein synthesis, which isn’t only important for muscle growth, but also muscle recovery. Elevating the amount of protein synthesis occurring in the muscle means muscle damage is repaired more quickly, which helps limit post exercise soreness and accelerates recovery, ultimately allowing for increased training frequency and better gains!*
Moreover, phosphatidic acid can actually limite muscle protein breakdown by reducing expression of a set of genes that encourage muscle protein breakdown. Decreased muscle protein breakdown means an increase muscle protein levels, which promotes muscle growth.*
May Help Reduce Stress Believe it or not, phosphatidic acid may also be useful for helping beat back stress, providing yet another means to encourage muscle growth, as stress leads to an increase in cortisol, an incredibly catabolic hormone that eats away at muscle tissue.*
Research has shown that phosphatidic acid dosed at 400mg per day showed significant reductions in cortisol levels and no increase in heart rate.*
High Bioavailability Ingredient bioavailability ultimately determines the effectiveness of supplements. If you’re body cannot efficiently absorb the compound, it doesn’t make a bit of difference. *
That’s where phosphatidic acid separates itself from other natural muscle builders. It’s actually been shown in humans to have a high oral bioavailability and increase plasma phosphatidic acid levels.*
Mediator -- the BEST form of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatidic acid is naturally synthesized in the body, and it’s found in a number of common foods, including cabbage, radishes, and lecithin granules. So, while it’s possible to get phosphatidic acid from whole foods, the amounts naturally occurring in those foods is pitifully low, and, on top of that, research shows that soy-based phosphatidic sources are the most effective.*
In fact, researchers tested multiple sources of soy- and egg-derived phosphatidic acid, and showed that soy-derived phosphatidic acid (Mediator®) increased mTOR signaling the most (636%!)*
Beware Cheap Imitations of Phosphatidic Acid PA Max uses only 100% Mediator phosphatidic acid, the form of phosphatidic acid shown in research studies to deliver the mass and strength-increasing benefits of phosphatidic acid. Other supplement brands attempt to cut corners using generic ingredients or underdosing phosphatidic acid while making unfounded claims.*
Not Primeval Labs.
We’ve included a full 1500mg Mediator phosphatidic acid per serving, providing 750mg phosphatidic acid per serving -- the same amount used in the studies demonstrating the benefits of phosphatidic acid.*
With PA Max, you can rest assured you’re getting the highest quality, most effective form of phosphatidic acid on the market, for superior mTOR activation and muscle growth!*
Why waste money on cheap knockoffs not using Mediator phosphatidic acid?*
Mediator® phosphatidic acid is verified using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis testing for quality, purity, and potency.*
Dosing Consume one serving of PA Max (i.e. 6 capsules) 30 minutes prior to training.*
Note: Research suggests not to consume whey protein at the same time as Phosphatidic Acid, as combining the two may actually reduce the effects of both, indicating they may compete for mTOR activation and negate the effects of each.*
For this reason, we suggest consuming your serving of PA Max 30 minutes prior to training and consuming your whey protein shake after your workout is complete.
No Side Effects! Best of all, PA Max is completely natural and non-hormonal! *
Furthermore, research shows it is very safe and side-effect free*:
"no differences at baseline in blood chemistry and hematology between the CON and EXP supplemented groups” and "no differences were observed in urinalysis values between the groups”*
References Hornberger, T. A., Sukhija, K. B., & Chien, S. (2006). Regulation of mTOR by mechanically induced signaling events in skeletal muscle. Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 5(13), 1391–1396. https://doi.org/10.4161/cc.5.13.2921
Hornberger TA, Chu WK, Mak YW, Hsiung JW, Huang SA, Chien S. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006;103(12):4741-4746. doi:10.1073/pnas.0600678103.
You JS, Frey JW, Hornberger TA. Mechanical Stimulation Induces mTOR Signaling via an ERK-Independent Mechanism: Implications for a Direct Activation of mTOR by Phosphatidic Acid. Berdeaux R, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e47258. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047258.
Foster DA. Phosphatidic Acid and Lipid Sensing by mTOR. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2013;24(6):272-278. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.02.003.
O’Neil TK, Duffy LR, Frey JW, Hornberger TA. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions. The Journal of Physiology. 2009;587(Pt 14):3691-3701. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.173609.
Goodman CA, Mabrey DM, Frey JW, et al. Novel insights into the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis as revealed by a new nonradioactive in vivo technique. The FASEB Journal. 2011;25(3):1028-1039. doi:10.1096/fj.10-168799.
Goodman CA, Mayhew DL, Hornberger TA. Recent Progress towards Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms that Regulate Skeletal Muscle Mass. Cellular signalling. 2011;23(12):1896-1906. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2011.07.013.
Goodman CA, Frey JW, Mabrey DM, et al. The role of skeletal muscle mTOR in the regulation of mechanical load-induced growth. The Journal of Physiology. 2011;589(Pt 22):5485-5501. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.218255.
Purpura M, Jager R, Joy JM, Lowery RP, Moore JD, Wilson JM. Effect of Oral Administration of Soy-Derived Phosphatidic ACid on Concentrations of Phosphatidic Acid and lyso-Phosphatidic Acid Molecular Species in Human Plasma. Poster Presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013.
Hoffman JR, Stout JR, Williams DR, et al. Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2012;9:47. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-47.
Joy JM, Lowery RP, Dudeck JE, De-Souza EO, Jager R, McCleary SA, Wilson SMC, Purpura M, Wilson JM. Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation Increases Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength. Poster presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013.
Dudeck JE, Joy JM, Lowery RP, De Souza EO, Jager R, McCleary SA, Wilson SMC, Purpur M, Wilson JM. Safety of Soy-Derived Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Young Males. Poster presentation at the ISSN Conference 2013
O’Neil TK, et al. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions. J Physiol. 2009 Jul 15;587(Pt 14):3691-701.
Joy JM, et al. Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Jun 16;11:29.
Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Buss, C., Engert, V., Tuch, A., Rutenberg, D., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 7(2), 119–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253890410001728379
Bond, P. (2017). Phosphatidic acid : biosynthesis , pharmacokinetics , mechanisms of action and effect on strength and body composition in resistance-trained individuals, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12986-017-0166-6
Mobley, C. B., Hornberger, T. A., Fox, C. D., Healy, J. C., Ferguson, B. S., Lowery, R. P. Roberts, M. D. (2015). Effects of oral phosphatidic acid feeding with or without whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and anabolic signaling in rodent skeletal muscle. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0094-7