Physiological Properties and Effects:Agmatine sulfateAgmatine is part of a group of compounds known as polyamines, alphatic amines which play multiple physiological roles in tissue growth and differentiation, body weight increment, brain organization, molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and extracellular communication. Agmatine itself is naturally produced in the body by the breakdown of arginine. Paradoxically, the studied effects of agmatine not only appear to mimic those of its parent compound arginine, but in many cases, surpass it. These effects include an increase in localized bloodflow (better plasma delivery), dilation of the vasculature (expanding of blood vessels), increased nutrient delivery, and a hypothesized effect on the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The most recent literature suggests that agmatine sulfate’s positive regulation of NO (nitric oxide) levels are not from direct conversion to NO within the classical NO-eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) pathway. Unlike arginine, agmatine now appears to increase plasma nitric oxide concentrations not via functioning as a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, but rather through a separate enzymatic pathway – therefore increasing the benefits of using agmatine and arginine (or citrulline) in conjunction with one another. Agmatine has also recently been demonstrated to possess a potential nutrient partitioning effect through an interesting brain-based compound known as a "neuropeptide.” This compound, b-endorphin, may be released when agmatine binds to specialized receptors on the adrenal gland – in turn, it may acutely lower blood glucose through a number of mechanisms. Most importantly, the effects of agmatine-catalyzed b-endorphin appear specific to skeletal muscle cells (known as myocytes), as GLUT-4 dependent glucose uptake activity did not occur in fat tissue cells (known as adipocytes) in rat trials.
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