Core Nutritionals Core Pump Sour Apple Candy - 28 Servings

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Core PUMP

Pre-workout Vasodilator and Performance Optimizer
In Pumping Iron, Arnold waxes poetically about, "the pump” by saying this:
The greatest feeling you can get in a gym, or the most satisfying feeling you can get in the gym is...the pump.
Can you really disagree? We all have our different reasons for training, of course: overall health and well-being, the satisfaction of dedication, achieving a goal, looking great – all valid. All noble and good reasons for dedicating your life to the iron. But, let’s be honest – the rawest, most visceral, most primal satisfaction you can possibly enjoy is the feeling of an intense pump that seems as if it will tear your skin off.

So, when was the last time you experienced a pump that incredible? Last workout? Maybe the one before that? At Core, it amazes us how many struggle to answer that question – and how seldom the industry has provided a product that delivers that kind of pump.
With Core PUMP, we can confidently say you will never struggle to answer that question again. We have taken our standard, Core approach – amazing ingredients, in clinical servings, all formulated in a non-proprietary blend – to the issue of pumps, and we have produced a product whose name simply couldn’t have been anything else.
Best of all, Core PUMP is completely gimmick-ingredient free. The compounds we have chosen are verified by science, backed by clinical research, and have been shown to increased bloodflow through a number of independent mechanisms. The pump from Core PUMP is therefore not just for vanity – though, you will likely spend more time in front of the mirror – but is also of real, verifiable, and measurable physiological benefit.
Our beta testers described PUMP as, "Skin-bursting,” and "intense.” They also described it as, "The best I have ever used. Hands down.” See why for yourself.


Physiological Properties and Effects:
Agmatine sulfate
Agmatine is part of a group of compounds known as polyamines, alphatic amines which play multiple physiological roles in tissue growth and differentiation, body weight increment, brain organization, molecular mechanisms of hormonal action, intracellular signaling, and extracellular communication. Agmatine itself is naturally produced in the body by the breakdown of arginine. Paradoxically, the studied effects of agmatine not only appear to mimic those of its parent compound arginine, but in many cases, surpass it. These effects include an increase in localized bloodflow (better plasma delivery), dilation of the vasculature (expanding of blood vessels), increased nutrient delivery, and a hypothesized effect on the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
The most recent literature suggests that agmatine sulfate’s positive regulation of NO (nitric oxide) levels are not from direct conversion to NO within the classical NO-eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) pathway. Unlike arginine, agmatine now appears to increase plasma nitric oxide concentrations not via functioning as a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, but rather through a separate enzymatic pathway – therefore increasing the benefits of using agmatine and arginine (or citrulline) in conjunction with one another.
Agmatine has also recently been demonstrated to possess a potential nutrient partitioning effect through an interesting brain-based compound known as a "neuropeptide.” This compound, b-endorphin, may be released when agmatine binds to specialized receptors on the adrenal gland – in turn, it may acutely lower blood glucose through a number of mechanisms. Most importantly, the effects of agmatine-catalyzed b-endorphin appear specific to skeletal muscle cells (known as myocytes), as GLUT-4 dependent glucose uptake activity did not occur in fat tissue cells (known as adipocytes) in rat trials.

l-Citrulline
Citrulline is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid that forms during the urea cycle and forms ornithine when combined with carbon dioxide. Citrulline is also a critical source of endogenous (natural) arginine, as it is rapidly and efficiently converted to arginine in the vascular endothelium and other tissues.
Citrulline’s benefits have been shown to be greater than its parent compound. While arginine undergoes direct hepatic (liver) metabolism through the enzyme arginase, citrulline bypasses hepatic metabolism entirely and it is delivered straight to the bloodstream. The result is that gut absorption and plasma (blood) bioavailability studies comparing citrulline and arginine have shown two things. First, that citrulline is less readily destroyed and has greater absorption than arginine. Second, that citrulline supplementation increases arginine levels more effectively than arginine supplementation itself.
This translates to promising results. For example, animal studies show a significant increase in anaerobic performance at a 250mg/kg/day serving of citrulline, while studies in humans implicate citrulline in both aerobic and anaerobic performance increases. As a critical part of the urea cycle, citrulline’s performance benefits are thought to be a result of its role in ammonia clearance. Citrulline is implicated in reducing the oxygen cost of muscle processes, along with increasing the rate of post-exercise ATP and phosphocreatine replenishment. As ATP and phosphocreatine are the body’s ‘exercise fuel,’ this may result in citrulline delaying time to exhaustion in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

In combination with the HydroMax™ found in Core PUMP, citrulline’s potential endurance applications are significant.
 
Hydroxmax® (65% glycerol):
Glycerol is a fascinating and highly useful compound that has achieved a somewhat cult status in the fitness community – while both peer-reviewed research and anecdotal reports centered on the endurance functions of glycerol are plentiful, its bodybuilding applications are not as widely lauded. Those who do use glycerol, however, are persistent in their belief that it provides some of the most noticeable, and effective, engorging ("pump”) effects possible.
Glycerol has been well-established as a so-called, "hyperhydrating agent” because of its ability to potently and positively affect plasma (blood) osmolality. As an incredibly powerful osmotic agent, and when combined with large quantities of water, glycerol induces the intracellular retention of fluid (not the extracellular kind, you do not want) that would otherwise be renally excreted. Various research has shown that glycerol’s capacity to positively affect osmolality and expand fluid volume (an increase in total body water) has beneficial effects on performance and physiologic function.

Studies that administered glycerol before both moderate and high endurance fitness tests found that glycerol reduced increases to core temperature, caused athletes to exercise significantly longer before fatigue, reduced urinary elimination of water and increased total body water content, and, in several studies, significantly improved intramuscular water expansion. In less complex terms, this means glycerol has been demonstrated to keep your muscles hydrated, significantly increase the ever-desired, "pump effect” of muscle engorgement, and, maybe most importantly when it comes to a supplement formulation, deliver and keep more nutrients  where they are needed (inside the muscle).

Until recently, however, most of these studies noted a significant drawback: the low glycerol concentration of market-available glycerol products forced researchers to test glycerol loads that were significantly higher than average use cases. Core PUMP uses HydroMax® to overcome precisely this problem.
HydroMax® is a highly-concentrated (65%) form of glycerol that offers greater water stability, and therefore potency, as compared to standard GMS (glycerol monostearate). Of particular interest to bodybuilders, HydroMax®’s greater potency translates to even greater levels of intramuscular water retention – keyword, intramuscular, and therefore no bloat – over GMS.

Overall, supplementation with HydroMax® has been shown to:
Keep athletes hyperhydrated for extended periods of time.
Reduce post-workout urine volume (more efficient fluid use).
Lower heart rate and improve endurance time.
Enhance plasma and intramuscular volume expansion.

Nitrosigine® (Inositol arginine silicate)
Along with creatine, arginine is perhaps the most well-known, and most well-understood, workout supplement. Its role in the classical NO-synthase-pathway of nitric oxide production has been meticulously studied, and as a consequence, the compound enjoys wide and constant use within the industry.
With familiarity comes complacency, however; as a consequence, legitimate breakthroughs with respect to novel and (more effective) forms of arginine have been infrequent. Though the attachments of various salts and/or other organic compounds to arginine have purportedly increased its rates of absorption and effectiveness, clinical research into these alternatives has been relatively sparse.
Enter Nitrosigine®. Nitrosigine® is a uniquely bonded complex of arginine and silica that possesses synergistic effects – translating to physiologic benefits that are greater than the sum of arginine and silica alone. The secret lies in Nitrosigine®’s highly unique and highly patented chemical structure. Nitrosigine® is produced by synthesizing potassium silicate and arginine together with an inositol base. The resultant complex, inositol arginine silicate, possesses significantly greater nutritional availability than its parent compounds, as the inositol base increases the solubility of both the typically water-insoluble potassium silicate and arginine.
The positive results of this synergy have been well-documented in both pre-clinical and human clinical trials. For example, a human clinical study, using healthy males ages 18-40, found that Nitrosigine® not only rapidly and substantially elevated plasma arginine (40% increase), but that plasma elevations persisted for approximately three hours. In comparison to arginine, another pre-clinical trial using animal subjects found that Nitrosigine®-induced blood vessel relaxation was five-fold greater, and vasodilation and localized blood flow levels were approximately double.
These acute effects are of course in addition to what is perhaps Nitrosigine®’s greatest benefit: prolonged and chronic plasma nitric oxide level increases. These same trials found that baseline nitric oxide levels – as measured by salivary nitrites, byproducts in the production of endothelial NO – were found to be increased after 14 consecutive days of product consumption. In practical terms, these results suggest that Nitrosigine® continues to be an effective, "NO-enhancer” after the acute effects of the compound dissipate.
Overall, studies on Nitrosigine® have shown:
Nitrosigine® to be more biologically effective than arginine hydrochloride (HCl).
Enhanced blood flow during and after exercise, helping with muscle growth and recovery.
Blood vessel relaxation almost 5x greater than Arginine HCl.
Higher nitric oxide related maximum blood flow and vessel relaxation.

Vitamin C
Thousands of reactions occur within the body as a result of intense physical training. Many of these cellular reactions form destructive oxygen atoms, known as radical oxygen species – or more commonly, free radicals. The cumulative effects of free radicals on human cells are known as oxidative stress, and hence, "anti-oxidants” have become a staple of most supplementation regimens.
One of the most potent and widely used anti-oxidants is vitamin C. In an exercise specific context, Vitamin C has been demonstrated to cleave (get rid of) many of the destructive radical oxygen species created in human skeletal muscle during exercise, and in the production of nitric oxide (the very purpose of a "pump” product). In one human trial, seven healthy, exercise-trained males were given either placebo, or a mixture of antioxidants containing primarily vitamin C (1500 mg), prior to an acute exercise challenge of 90 minutes.  Afterward, the vitamin C groups displayed significantly lower levels of exercise-induced radical oxygen species. Vitamin C’s radical scavenging effects have also been demonstrated to exert a dose and time-dependent effect on nitric oxide levels – meaning that the effect increased, to a point, with the serving provided. Researchers believe that Vitamin C does not directly affect nitric oxide, but rather protects a compound known as tetrahydrobiopterin from various radical oxygen species. Tetrahydrobiopterin is, in turn, a critical component in the production of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide).
Think of it like this: tetrahydrobiopterin (and therefore nitric oxide) is the pop star, and vitamin C is the bodyguard. Vitamin C itself does no singing, it simply prevents the creeps from interrupting the pop star, allowing it to sing.
 
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Presented at The Experimental Biology (EB) 2014 meeting held at the San Diego Convention Center, April 30, 2014 and in the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology journal (FASEB).

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