EvoMuse SlinTensity

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Slintensity Redux Write-Up
Intro
Designed to help drive more nutrients into the muscle cells and away from fat, the idea behind Slintensity Redux is to make every meal more anabolic. Whether you are on a low, medium or high carbohydrate nutrition plan, Slintensity Redux has a place in the arsenal. Here are some thoughts on each:

Low Carb Eater
Typically low carb eaters lean towards a higher fat intake, hence the term "LCHF” for low carb/high fat. The higher fat intake can lead to a degree of insulin resistance and elevated fasting blood glucose in some people (but certainly not all). This is typically not a problem if carbs are continuously kept low, as insulin is less of a player on a LCHF diet, and insulin resistance doesn’t really matter if you’re not using much endogenous insulin.

However, many LCHF eaters still like to have a higher carbohydrate post workout meal to replenish muscle glycogen, and this would be the perfect time to use Slintensity Redux to allow improved insulin sensitivity and insurance of the extra carbohydrate load going where it is wanted. It could also be used before a cheat meal on a ketogenic diet to reduce the time needed to get back into ketosis.

Moderate Carb Eater
For the moderate carb eater, Slintensity Redux is perfect to take before any carb containing meals to help maximally encourage muscle building while minimizing fat storage. You will likely find that you can get away with a higher carb intake than usual, if so desired.

High Carb Eater
For those on a gaining phase, or those that just eat high carbs year round, you will likely notice a much easier time building muscle and losing fat with the addition of Slintensity Redux. If you are the type that is prone to crashing/fogginess/fatigue after meals, you will also likely start to notice feeling quite a bit better once the improved nutrient partitioning takes effect. You may either be able to reduce your carb intake while still enjoying the same rate of muscle growth, or maintain/increase your high carb intake with a lower level of fat spillover and even more muscle growth.

How does Slintensity Redux work?
Improved GLUT4 translocation
Improved insulin sensitivity, production and signaling
Increased nutrient disposal into muscle
Decreased nutrient disposal into fat cells
And much more…see below

Let’s take a look at each of the ingredients and how they work.
Banaba blend (Corosolic Acid/mixed elaggitannins)
Coming from the banaba leaf, this extract is standardized for a high concentration of corosolic acid and mixed elaggitannins. The first published study dates all the way back to 1940, and is commonly used in folk medicine for diabetes.

Banaba has several powerful effects, the most important ones for our purposes relate to its interaction with blood sugar. It has been shown in numerous studies to decrease serum blood sugar after carbohydrate ingestion by enhancing glucose uptake at the muscle cell (1–8).

Banaba appears to carry out its effects through favorable signaling modulation of PPARa, PPARy, MAPK, and NF-kb, while significantly increasing insulin sensitivity and translocation of GLUT4 receptors to the outside of the cell membrane, giving insulin more places to dock and let the glucose in (1–3,7,9,10). It also appears to be an insulin mimetic, albeit acting in a different way than insulin itself (11).

Multiple studies have also elucidated banaba’s ability to either decrease or inhibit gluconeogenesis, which is the basically the conversion of protein into glucose (1,2,12). This means less protein being wasted, and more available for muscle building.

Good news for blood lipids and other general health markers as well, take a look at these benefits:

Antihyperlipidemic (reduces elevated blood lipids) (1,2)
Reduces serum Triglycerides, FFA’s, and hepatic lipid content (1,2,7,10,13,14)
Decreases blood pressure, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers like CRP-hs (13)
Reduces HbA1c (which is typically thought of as a window into your last three months of blood sugar levels, however it is also an indicator of the level of Advanced Glycation End Products {AGE’s} in the body) (7).
Increases adiponectin (10).

One group of researchers took genetically obese mice and fed them a fattening diet, and found that the addition of corosolic acid reduced fat gain by 15% over controls (10). And remember, this is in an obese model, where everything related to a functional metabolism is a disaster.

Finally, one last cool thing about banaba; it has been shown to suppress adipocyte differentiation, preventing stem cells from becoming mature fat cells (15).
4OH-Ile (4-hydroxyisoleucine)
4OH-Ile is an atypical branched-chain amino acid derived from fenugreek. Unlike banaba which has insulin like effects without stimulating extra insulin production, 4OH-Ile appears to directly stimulate glucose-induced insulin release from the pancreas. This effect is seen when blood glucose starts to rise above about 118mg/dL, which would be well above a fasting glucose for a healthy person but a pretty easily achieved post-prandial level for even a moderate carbohydrate meal. Also, the more blood glucose rises, the more insulin 4OH-Ile triggers, in a biphasic fashion (16).
Similar to banaba, 4OH-Ile has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in muscle cells, doing so by triggering translocation of GLUT4 receptors through the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway (17–21). However, even though 4OH-Ile stimulates insulin production in response to elevated blood sugar (i.e., carb intake), it also tends to lower fasting insulin levels (17,21).

Once cells become insulin resistant, a cascade of bad things starts to happen in the body. 4OH-Ile has demonstrated the ability to reverse many of these problems. Namely, reducing total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, TNFa, liver enzymes AST and ALT, and HbA1c, while elevating HDL (15,18,19,21,22).

So basically 4OH-Ile is going to crank up insulin production when it’s beneficial to get more glucose and amino acids into the muscle cells, support normal levels while fasting, and help optimize blood lipids and inflammatory cytokines.
Momordin
Momordin is a titerpenoid saponin extracted from the bitter melon fruit. It is the third ingredient in the Slintensity formula shown to increase GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells, thereby encouraging better insulin sensitivity and higher glucose uptake (23). Momordin works, at least in part, through PI3K/MAPK dependent PPAR signaling (24,25). It has also been shown to increase AMPK phosphorylation and reduce the expression of PEPCK. One study looking at overfed mice showed that the addition of momordin caused less visceral fat gain and reduced glucose levels, triglycerides and fatty acid synthase (FAS) (26).

Momordin has also been shown to have a three-pronged attack on preventing fat gain in human fat cells by inhibiting its storage, increasing lipolysis, and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation (27). Finally, it also appears to slow gastric emptying which improves glucose metabolism and insulin signaling (28).
FMOC-L-Leu
FMOC-L-Leu is a derivative of the Amino Acid Leucine, with some highly unique effects. It acts as a ligand for PPARy, binding in a particular way that causes it to only activate the beneficial signaling pathways that we want. Specifically, it potently increases insulin sensitivity without increasing adipogenesis (often when insulin sensitivity is increased, it happens at both muscle and fat cells encouraging heightened uptake at both places, which is not ideal in a non-pathological state) (29). 
Phellodendri Cortex 20:1
Extracted from the bark of the Phellodendron tree, Phellodendri Cortex contains two major compounds relevant to Slintensity, obacunone and berberine (30).

Obacunone does several beneficial things, let’s take a look.

Arginase Inhibition
Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) competes with arginase for available L-arginine. Too much arginase, and the L-arginine substrate pool becomes depleted, leaving little left over for NOS to produce NO with. More NO allows us to take advantage of post meal vasodilation, encouraging enhanced delivery of nutrients to the cells. Obacunone has been demonstrated to be an arginase inhibitor, and subsequently boost NO production. It was even able to attenuate the effect of a vasoconstrictor (31).

TRG5 agonism
This is a protein that serves as a cell surface bile acid receptor. The activation of this receptor triggers intracellular cAMP production and MAPk signaling, demonstrating involvement in energy homeostasis. Interestingly, when this receptor is agonized it activates enzymes that convert the minimally active thyroid hormone T4 into the potent hormone T3. The ineffective conversion of T4 to T3 is quite common in people with suboptimal thyroid function, which can throw a wrench into fat loss and muscle gain, among other things.

TRG5 agonism, which obacunone has demonstrated capability for, has been shown to prevent elevated blood sugar and obesity in mice overfed a high fat diet (32,33).

P-gp (P-glycoprotein) inhibition
This glycoprotein carries several things through intra and extra-cellular membranes, and it can reduce the bioavailability of many pharmaceuticals and supplements. The intestinal barrier cells use P-gp to resist absorption of berberine, which likely accounts for reports of GI distress when users consume high doses of the compound. Obacunone has demonstrated significant P-gp inhibition capabilities, allowing for better bioavailability of berberine and other ingredients (30).

In addition to the above, obacunone also acts as an anti-aromatase, reduces inflammatory markers like NF-kB & COX2, activates the p38/MAPK pathway, and prevents glutamate induced neurotoxicity (34,35).

As for Berberine, a ton of research has been done on this compound assessing its beneficial effect on blood sugar, insulin and diabetes management, so we will avoid going through all of that for the sake of brevity and just look at a few interesting points.

In a recent randomized double blind placebo study, 24 subjects with metabolic syndrome participated; half were given berberine three times per day before meals. Those that received berberine compared to controls, saw reduced blood pressure, triglycerides, reduced AUC for glucose and insulin, increased insulin sensitivity, and an improvement in the Matsuda index (an index looking at the response to an oral glucose tolerance test) (36).

Berberine has also been shown to donwregulate lipogenetic genes and upregulate energy expenditure genes in adipose and muscle cells (37). It also appears to increase insulin sensitivity in a novel way, by having a somewhat dichotomous effect on mitochondria. It activates AMPK, then inhibits mitochondrial function, then when the berberine clears the extra AMPK enhances mitochondrial function, and the end result is enhanced glucose and FFA oxidation with improved insulin sensitivity (38).

Berberine also inhibits preadipocyte differentiation, and encourages the gut microbiota to shift towards the type that produce the extremely beneficial Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA’s) (39,40).
Green Curry Leaf Extract
GCLE is exactly what it sounds like, also known as Murraya Koenigii. GCLE has been shown in numerous studies to have a glucose lowering effect, fasting and in response to a meal. It appears to do so by the familiar mechanism of increasing GLUT4 translocation causing enhanced glucose uptake at the muscle cell, as well as being another ingredient that actually stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion (41–46).

In addition, GLCE has also been shown to lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, reduce oxidative stress and pancreatic cell damage, inhibit glycation, and boost glutathione (41,43,46–49).

Conclusion
As you can see, we have combined several potent and exciting ingredients into Slintensity Redux that should have a profound effect on muscle gain and fat loss. Optimal dosing will take experimenting depending on your carbohydrate intake, so start with label directions and go from there.

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