MyoSynergy Elite Write UpIntro
MyoSynergy Elite is a brand new formula capitalizing on the success of the original MyoSynergy formula, with some exciting tweaks. Like the original formula, MyoSynergy Elite has been designed to potently trigger multiple pathways of muscle building at the cellular level. In addition, it will also aid in preventing muscle breakdown, boosting strength levels, and encouraging mitochondrial biogenesis.
To better understand the inclusion of the specific ingredients in the formula, it is important to have a little bit of background on the ways the body upregulates muscle growth. We don't just grow or shrink unless we have the proper signals to do so. The primary growth signal, and the main anabolic focus of MyoSynergy, is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.Anabolic/Catabolic Signaling
To trigger anabolism, the body primarily engages in the following sequence of events:
Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) activates Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K), which activates Protein Kinase B (Akt), which then activates the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (MTOR, also known as the mammalian Target of Rapamycin). Considered the master regulator of protein synthesis in muscle, MTOR is the key player in this cascade.
When this happens, we see the following take place (1,2):
Ø Protein Synthesis (muscle growth)
Ø Anti-catabolism (prevention of muscle breakdown)
Ø Myostatin inhibition (major governor on muscle growth)
Ø MuRF1 reduction (more on that below)
Although it was previously thought that Myostatin generated a cellular signal to kickstart muscle breakdown, it has now been shown to instead block the above anabolic pathway (1,2). So inhibition of myostatin allows for accelerated anabolism.
Catabolic Signaling is multifaceted and complex, but a couple of key players in the triggering of muscle protein degradation are MuRF1 and MAFbx (3–5). These can be activated by inflammatory cytokines like TGF-a and NF-kappaB, but are also susceptible to other mechanisms of activation (6).
Now with this background out of the way, let's get into how MyoSynergy will favorably manipulate these pathways to greatly augment your ability to gain muscle!Eucommia Ulmoides Extract (EUE)
EUE comes from the bark of a small tree native to China, and has been well studied for a variety of effects on the brain and body.
Firstly, from an anabolic hormonal perspective, EUE has been shown to have "phytoandrogen” properties, acting as a mild androgen. It also acts as an androgen booster/helper, by augmenting endogenous and/or exogenous testosterone signaling at the androgen receptor (7). EUE is also a potent inducer of Growth Hormone release, and increases IGF-1 expression (8,9).
EUE also improves glucose and insulin signaling through multiple angles. It has been shown to selectively increase GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscles, which basically means you can get more carbohydrates into your muscle cells (10). In rats overfed fructose to develop insulin resistance, the group supplemented with EUE for a month saw a significant reduction in fasting insulin and blood pressure vs. the controls (11).
Aside from the anabolic/muscle growth properties of EUE, it also boasts several mechanisms to enhance fat loss (in addition to the previously stated lowering of fasting insulin). Multiple studies have demonstrated EUE's ability to significantly increase fatty acid oxidation, and it even has the unique ability to increase skeletal muscle's ability to use ketone bodies on a high fat diet (10,12). Not only does it upregulate fat burning, but it has also been shown to be a powerful inhibitor of adipogenesis (the process of a pre-adipocyte becoming a fat cell) (13). EUE may also promote improved blood lipids by lowering triglycerides, and has been called an anti-metabolic syndrome agent (10,12).
It turns out EUE may even make your brain work better as well. It has been shown to be a potent Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (thereby boosting the function of acetylcholine in the brain), and due to this it was able to improve memory impairment and maze test outcomes in mice with Alzheimer's Disease (14). In healthy individuals, enhancing the function of acetylcholine can increase speed of thought and even help performance as these levels tend to drop during hard exercise.
Finally, and one of the several reasons we recommend stacking this product with EvoMuse BMP, is the ability of EUE to enhance bone growth signaling (which can actually directly influence muscle hypertrophy as well, which is thoroughly covered in the BMP writeup). EUE markedly increases BMP-2, improves bone cell function during times of oxidative stress, promotes bone growth, increases proliferation of osteoblasts, promotes chondrogenesis, and inhibits osteolysis (8,9,13,15,16).Butea Superba Extract (BSE)
Bueta Superba is an interesting Thai herb, widely considered to have aphrodisiac qualities. Along the lines of the aphrodisiac aspect, it has been shown to increase penile erections in diabetic rats (diabetes frequently interferes with normal erectile function) (17).
When a compound has libido boosting effects, chances are pretty good that we'll see some positive interaction with testosterone and/or DHT, which is exactly what we see with BSE. If one were to look solely at the 2008 rat study from Cherdshewasart, et al., it would appear that BSE could actually lower testosterone when taken at high doses, and even elevate liver enzymes (18). However, there's a couple of things to keep in mind here. One, when taking prohormones or non-testosterone based steroids, the body drops production of its own testosterone to compensate, which is likely what is happening here. And two, the rest of the published data tells a different story, in fact, another rat study using an even higher dose of BSE resulted in increased testis weight and sperm count, and found it to be safe with no adverse side effects at 100x the Thai recommended dose for humans (19).
BSE has also been shown to be anti-estrogenic and androgenic in several other studies, as well as being deemed to work in conjunction, and synergistically with the body's own testosterone (20–22).
In a 2012 case study, a patient came in "complaining” of an increased sex drive. Lab testing revealed elevated levels of Free Testosterone, DHT, and DHEA-sulfate, and was thus diagnosed as having hyperandrogenemia (aka elevated androgens, sounds like a good problem to have). After assessing current supplement intake, the patient was advised to stop taking BSE. One week after cessation, the patient's sex drive had returned to normal and lab testing showed DHT had dropped back to normal (23).
BSE also appears to have some positive effects on the brain. Research shows it can increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus, relieve depression-like symptoms induced by chronic stress, ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, and inhibit acetylcholinesterase thereby elevating acetylcholine levels (24,25).
In summary, we should see a nice jump in muscle building anabolic hormones, anti-estrogen activity, and a bit of a brain boost from BSE.Hwanggeumachal Sorghum (HS)
Sorghum refers to a genus of grasses, typically used in livestock feed. As you can probably assume by now, we didn't just throw some grass clippings in this advanced formula. We have found a very specific extract of Sorghum that boasts some cool properties.
Growth Hormone (GH) is a well-known regulator of bone growth. When GH is elevated, it triggers something called the Jak/STAT pathway, which regulates IGF-1, a major player in bone and muscle growth. HS has been shown to act almost exactly like GH in activating this Jak/STAT pathway, which then increases the expression of GH related proteins, (one of which, STAT5b triggers BMP7), the GH receptor itself, IGF-1, the IGF-1 receptor, and BMP7 (26).
The science nerds might have noticed something particularly intriguing about that. When we trigg
.er more BMP7, we trigger more MSC differentiation towards osteoblasts, giving the (now also elevated by HS) anabolic IGF-1 more beneficial places to exert its effects.
And for the bonus round, HSE has been shown to reduce plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglycerides when given to obese rats on a high fat diet (27).Epicatechin
Epicatechin is an exciting ingredient with potential to stimulate muscle growth through multiple avenues.
As we age, Myostatin increases while its inhibitors like follistatin and myogenin/MyoD (the latter two are responsible for regulating muscle cell differentiation) tend to decrease. This sets the stage for increased muscle loss. Epicatechin has been shown to reverse this, decreasing Myostatin and improving the follistatin/myostatin ratio and increasing strength after only seven days of intake (28).
Epicatechin has also been shown in multiple studies to increase muscle capillarity and biogenesis of mitochondria, which persists even with cessation of use (29,30). More blood flow and mitochondria paves the road to enhanced hypertrophic capability and improved performance. In addition, epicatechin has recently been shown to favorably regulate the function of specific proteins in control of muscular contraction (31).Forskolin
Forskolin is well known to induce cyclic AMP production, which has several physiological effects. One of those effects is an increase in follistatin, which, as mentioned previously, counteracts the inhibitory effects of Myostatin on muscle growth (32,33). This cAMP activation has also been shown to directly activate MTOR by phosphorylating S6K1, mobilizing intracellular calcium stores and increasing ATP production (34).
Forskolin has also been shown to enhance the PI3K/Akt pathway, triggering anabolism as well as angiogenesis (the creation of new blood vessels) (35,36).HICA
HICA stands for Hydroxyisocaproic Acid, also known as Leucic Acid, and is a metabolite of the main MTOR activating amino acid L-Leucine. When you ingest Leucine, it goes down one of two metabolic pathways and either converts to KIC or HMB. If it gets converted to KIC, some of that gets converted to HICA. Now the problem with this traditional conversion cascade, is that KIC upregulates an enzyme called BCKDH, which then oxidizes BCAA's including Leucine, so it acts as a governor on the available Leucine pool in the bloodstream, eventually using it all up to halt MTOR activation. One of the main reasons people can get away with a lower protein intake on a ketogenic diet and still build muscle is because in ketosis, the body oxidizes (wastes) less Leucine, so each gram of protein is more anabolic. Now, this still needs to be shown in research, but theoretically HICA can sneak by the regulatory mechanisms that trigger BCKDH, therefore allowing more MTOR activation before the party gets shut down.
A recent study published in the highly respected ISSN Journal looked at the effect of HICA supplementation for four weeks in male soccer players. The results showed an increase in lean body mass, 23% reduction in DOMS, and improved training alertness in the HICA group compared to placebo (37). ATP
Previous research has led people to believe that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is not orally bioavailable, thus dismissing its use as a sports supplement (38). While the research itself was not inherently incorrect, it turns out researchers were just measuring ATP at the wrong place (they should have been measuring venous portal blood). Since we now know more about the kinetics of oral ATP, it turns out the most effective time to ingest it is about 30 minutes pre-workout, so be sure to time one of your MyoSynergy doses accordingly.
Before the more accurate testing methods were elucidated, a study was conducted that looked at the effect of ATP supplementation on strength training, and the results were a little surprising considering ATP's apparent lack of oral bioavailability. They found some interesting within group differences in the subject group taking a higher dose of ATP compared to the lower dose group, and concluded supplementation may provide some ergogenic benefits (39).
Newer research from the prestigious exercise science researcher Jacob Wilsonhas demonstrated the ability of supplemental ATP to increase total body strength, vertical jump power, muscle thickness, and reduced muscle protein breakdown versus placebo after 12 weeks of resistance training (40).Astragalus Membranaceus
While Astragalus Membranaceus (AM) has numerous potential benefits, here we are focused on a few specific ones, namely IGF-1 boosting, Myostatin inhibition, glucose and insulin signaling, and exercise performance.
AM has been shown to upregulate IGF-1 production, which, as noted above, kickstarts the entire anabolic cascade (41). Researchers later conducted a study to re-test this, and found that it did in fact increase IGF-1 while also stimulating bone growth in rats, and suggested that AM "may be helpful in stimulating growth in children with short stature", which it is actually used for in traditional Korean medicine (42). In fully-grown adults, IGF-1 is no longer responsible for bone growth, as it shifts its focus to other duties like muscle growth. So, sorry, MyoSynergy Elite will not make you taller, you'll just have to distract people with your bigger muscles.
As you recall from earlier, IGF-1 activation is going to indirectly decrease Myostatin levels. In addition to that, another study showed that AM was able to reduce Myostatin more directly by inhibiting the NF-kappaB pathway (43).
Aside from boosting IGF-1 to enhance anabolism, AM also appears to have a pronounced effect on the way the body handles glucose and insulin. In one study, when researchers tried to fatten rats up and give them diabetes, AM was able to ameliorate "glucose toxicity", improve insulin sensitivity, and increase glucose uptake in the muscle cells (44). This boost in insulin sensitivity and increased muscle glycogen storage has been corroborated by other studies as well (43,45,46). Better skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and more glucose uptake = bigger muscles. Nice.
AM has also been shown to enhance exercise performance by reducing the accumulation of metabolic waste products (45).Broccoli Sprout
Broccoli Sprout is a source of sulforaphane, which has numerous beneficial effects on general health, such as acting as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (47). It also acts as an antioxidant, and more specifically, modulates the redox environment in muscle cells to control exercise induced muscle damage (48,49).
The main reason for inclusion of Broccoli Sprout, however, is the interaction with Myostatin. A recent study in the journal Epigenetics showed that sulforaphane significantly suppresses Myostatin, while also suppressing the negative feedback inhibitors of the Myostatin pathway (50). Cholecalciferol
The final ingredient in MyoSynergy Elite is Cholecalciferol, better known as Vitamin D3. Rates of Vitamin D deficiency continue to climb as people fear sun exposure and consume more nutrient devoid foods, a 2011 study showed that over 40% of the population was Vitamin D deficient, with certain ethnic groups being significantly higher (51). Aside from a multitude of health problems related to suboptimal Vitamin D status, it could also end up being a limiter of muscle growth, even at levels not considered to be an actual deficiency.
A 2013 study looking at healthy, active subjects given supplemental Vitamin D3, showed that they increased peak isometric force and had decreased muscle damage biomarkers…and here's the kicker, they all had clinically sufficient Vitamin D status prior to supplementation (52).
In a study looking at European Sea Bass, the researchers found the group with the highest supplemental Vitamin D3 dosage experienced muscle cell hyperplasia, showing a direct effect of cholecalciferol on muscle cell growth (53). Another 2013 study in human subjects found that supplemental cholecalciferol caused improvements in several tested parameters of muscle strength (54)
In a group of people with low Vitamin D staus, supplemental cholecalciferol was shown to increase the concentration of the Vitamin D Receptors (VDR) by 30%, as well as actual muscle fiber size by 10% (55). Another study showed the same effect of cholecalciferol supplementation to increase VDR concentration, as well as decrease exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation by decreasing NF-kappaB (which could indirectly decrease Myostatin production) (56).
In summary, MyoSynergy Elite is designed to potently upregulate the body's main anabolic signals, inhibit catabolic pathways, and promote increases in strength and exercise performance. The specific combination and dosages of these novel ingredients should allow users to tap into a previously unattainable level of muscle growth.
1. Glass DJ. PI3 Kinase Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010 Jul;
2. Glass DJ. Signaling pathways perturbing muscle mass. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 May;13(3):225–9.
3. Koyama S, Hata S, Witt CC, Ono Y, Lerche S, Ojima K, et al. Muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF1) as a connector of muscle energy metabolism and protein synthesis. J Mol Biol. 2008 Mar 7;376(5):1224–36.
4. de Palma L, Marinelli M, Pavan M, Orazi A. Ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx in human skeletal muscle atrophy. Jt Bone Spine Rev Rhum. 2008 Jan;75(1):53–7.
5. Foletta VC, White LJ, Larsen AE, Léger B, Russell AP. The role and regulation of MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in skeletal muscle atrophy. Pflüg Arch Eur J Physiol. 2011 Mar;461(3):325–35.
6. Glass DJ. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy signaling pathways. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Oct;37(10):1974–84.
7. Glass DJ. PI3 Kinase Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol [Internet]. 2010 Jul; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20593312
8. Ha H, Ho J, Shin S, Kim H, Koo S, Kim I-H, et al. Effects of Eucommiae Cortex on osteoblast-like cell proliferation and osteoclast inhibition. Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Nov;26(11):929–36.
9. Kim JY, Lee J-I, Song M, Lee D, Song J, Kim SY, et al. Effects of Eucommia ulmoides extract on longitudinal bone growth rate in adolescent female rats. Phytother Res PTR. 2015 Jan;29(1):148–53.
10. Fujikawa T, Hirata T, Wada A, Kawamura N, Yamaguchi Y, Fujimura K, et al. Chronic administration of Eucommia leaf stimulates metabolic function of rats across several organs. Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(12):1868–77.
11. Jin X, Amitani K, Zamami Y, Takatori S, Hobara N, Kawamura N, et al. Ameliorative effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves extract (ELE) on insulin resistance and abnormal perivascular innervation in fructose-drinking rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Apr 21;128(3):672–8.
12. Kobayashi Y, Hiroi T, Araki M, Hirokawa T, Miyazawa M, Aoki N, et al. Facilitative effects of Eucommia ulmoides on fatty acid oxidation in hypertriglyceridaemic rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jan 30;92(2):358–65.
13. Tan X-L, Zhang Y-H, Cai J-P, Zhu L-H, Ge W-J, Zhang X. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde inhibits adipogenic and enhances osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells. Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Apr;9(4):529–32.
14. Kwon S-H, Lee H-K, Kim J-A, Hong S-I, Kim S-Y, Jo T-H, et al. Neuroprotective effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2011 Jan 3;487(1):123–7.
15. Lin J, Fan Y, Mehl C, Zhu J, Chen H, Jin L, et al. Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. antagonizes H2O2-induced rat osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 apoptosis by inhibiting expressions of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 9. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011 Jan;12(1):47–54.
16. Zhang R, Liu ZG, Li C, Hu SJ, Liu L, Wang JP, et al. Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) cortex extract prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats. Bone. 2009 Sep;45(3):553–9.
17. Tocharus C, Sooksaen P, Shimbhu D, Tocharus J. Butea superba (Roxb.) improves penile erection in diabetic rats. Andrologia. 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:728–33.
18. Cherdshewasart W, Bhuntaku P, Panriansaen R, Dahlan W, Malaivijitnond S. Androgen disruption and toxicity tests of Butea superba Roxb., a traditional herb used for treatment of erectile dysfunction, in male rats. Maturitas. 2008 Jun 20;60(2):131–7.
19. Manosroi A, Sanphet K, Saowakon S, Aritajat S, Manosroi J. Effects of Butea superba on reproductive systems of rats. Fitoterapia. 2006 Sep;77(6):435–8.
20. Cherdshewasart W, Mahapanichkul T, Boonchird C. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of the Thai traditional herb, Butea superba Roxb. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(11):2176–82.
21. Malaivijitnond S, Ketsuwan A-N, Watanabe G, Taya K, Cherdshewasart W. Androgenic activity of the Thai traditional male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb., in female rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 12;121(1):123–9.
22. Malaivijitnond S, Ketsuwan A, Watanabe G, Taya K, Cherdshewasart W. Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb. Braz J Med Biol Res Rev Bras Pesqui Médicas E Biológicas Soc Bras Biofísica Al. 2010 Sep;43(9):843–52.
23. Chaiyasit K, Wiwnaitkit V. Hyperandrogenemia due to ingestion of Butea superba. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;16(3):485–6.
24. Mizuki D, Matsumoto K, Tanaka K, Thi Le X, Fujiwara H, Ishikawa T, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of Butea superba in mice exposed to chronic mild stress and its possible mechanism of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Oct 28;156:16–25.
25. Mizuki D, Qi Z, Tanaka K, Fujiwara H, Ishikawa T, Higuchi Y, et al. Butea superba-induced amelioration of cognitive and emotional deficits in olfactory bulbectomized mice and putative mechanisms underlying its actions. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;124(4):457–67.
26. Joung YH, Lim EJ, Darvin P, Jang JW, Park KD, Lee HK, et al. Hwanggeumchal sorghum extract enhances BMP7 and GH signaling through the activation of Jak2/STAT5B in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Mol Med Rep. 2013 Sep;8(3):891–6.
27. Chung I-M, Yeo M-A, Kim S-J, Kim M-J, Park D-S, Moon H-I. Antilipidemic activity of organic solvent extract from Sorghum bicolor on rats with diet-induced obesity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Nov;30(11):1865–8.
28. Gutierrez-Salmean G, Ciaraldi TP, Nogueira L, Barboza J, Taub PR, Hogan MC, et al. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Jan;25(1):91–4.
29. Hüttemann M, Lee I, Perkins GA, Britton SL, Koch LG, Malek MH. (-)-Epicatechin is associated with increased angiogenic and mitochondrial signalling in the hindlimb of rats selectively bred for innate low running capacity. Clin Sci Lond Engl 1979. 2013 Jun;124(11):663–74.
30. Taub PR, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ciaraldi TP, Perkins G, Murphy AN, Naviaux R, et al. Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa. Clin Transl Sci. 2012 Feb;5(1):43–7.
31. Taub PR, Ramirez-Sanchez I, Ciaraldi TP, Gonzalez-Basurto S, Coral-Vazquez R, Perkins G, et al. Perturbations in skeletal muscle sarcomere structure in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes: restorative effects of (-)-epicatechin-rich cocoa. Clin Sci Lond Engl 1979. 2013 Oct;125(8):383–9.
32. Winters SJ, Ghooray D, Fujii Y, Moore JP, Nevitt JR, Kakar SS. Transcriptional regulation of follistatin expression by GnRH in mouse gonadotroph cell lines: evidence for a role for cAMP signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jun;271(1-2):45–54.
33. Wang Y, Ge W. Gonadotropin regulation of follistatin expression in the cultured ovarian follicle cells of zebrafish, Danio rerio. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003 Dec;134(3):308–15.
34. Kwon G, Marshall CA, Pappan KL, Remedi MS, McDaniel ML. Signaling elements involved in the metabolic regulation of mTOR by nutrients, incretins, and growth factors in islets. Diabetes. 2004 Dec;53 Suppl 3:S225–32.
35. Namkoong S, Kim C-K, Cho Y-L, Kim J-H, Lee H, Ha K-S, et al. Forskolin increases angiogenesis through the coordinated cross-talk of PKA-dependent VEGF expression and Epac-mediated PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling. Cell Signal. 2009 Jun;21(6):906–15.
36. Misra UK, Pizzo SV. Upregulation of AKT1 protein expression in forskolin-stimulated macrophage: evidence from ChIP analysis that CREB binds to and activates the AKT1 promoter. J Cell Biochem. 2007 Mar 1;100(4):1022–33.
37. Mero AA, Ojala T, Hulmi JJ, Puurtinen R, Karila TA, Seppälä T. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jan;7:1.
38. Coolen EJCM, Arts ICW, Bekers O, Vervaet C, Bast A, Dagnelie PC. Oral bioavailability of ATP after prolonged administration. Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;1–9.
39. Jordan AN, Jurca R, Abraham EH, Salikhova A, Mann JK, Morss GM, et al. Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004 Jun;36(6):983–90.
40. Wilson JM, Joy JM, Lowery RP, Roberts MD, Lockwood CM, Manninen AH, et al. Effects of oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutr Metab. 2013 Jan;10(1):57.
41. Wu H, Zhou H. [Astragalus membranaceus promote expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 in rat model of olivo-cerebellar degeneration]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi China J Chin Mater Medica. 2007 Feb;32(3):242–5.
42. Kim M-Y, Kim JY, Lim D, Lee D, Kim Y, Chang GT, et al. Skeletal growth and IGF levels in rats after HT042 treatment. Phytother Res PTR. 2012 Dec;26(12):1771–8.
43. Liu M, Qin J, Hao Y, Luo J, Luo T, Wei L. Astragalus polysaccharide suppresses skeletal muscle myostatin expression in diabetes: involvement of ROS-ERK and NF-?B pathways. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013 Jan;2013:782497.
44. Zou F, Mao X, Wang N, Liu J, Ou-Yang J. Astragalus polysaccharides alleviates glucose toxicity and restores glucose homeostasis in diabetic states via activation of AMPK. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009 Dec;30(12):1607–15.
45. Yeh T-S, Chuang H-L, Huang W-C, Chen Y-M, Huang C-C, Hsu M-C. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice. Mol Basel Switz. 2014 Jan;19(3):2793–807.
46. Liu M, Wu K, Mao X, Wu Y, Ouyang J. Astragalus polysaccharide improves insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice: regulation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscle. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jan 8;127(1):32–7.
47. Fan H, Zhang R, Tesfaye D, Tholen E, Looft C, Hölker M, et al. Sulforaphane causes a major epigenetic repression of myostatin in porcine satellite cells. Epigenetics Off J DNA Methylation Soc. 2012 Dec;7(12):1379–90.
48. Guerrero-Beltrán CE, Calderón-Oliver M, Pedraza-Chaverri J, Chirino YI. Protective effect of sulforaphane against oxidative stress: recent advances. Exp Toxicol Pathol Off J Ges Für Toxikol Pathol. 2012 Jul;64(5):503–8.
49. Malaguti M, Angeloni C, Garatachea N, Baldini M, Leoncini E, Collado PS, et al. Sulforaphane treatment protects skeletal muscle against damage induced by exhaustive exercise in rats. J Appl Physiol Bethesda Md 1985. 2009 Oct;107(4):1028–36.
50. Fan H, Zhang R, Tesfaye D, Tholen E, Looft C, Hölker M, et al. Sulforaphane causes a major epigenetic repression of myostatin in porcine satellite cells. Epigenetics Off J DNA Methylation Soc. 2012 Dec 1;7(12):1379–90.
51. Forrest KYZ, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res N Y N. 2011 Jan;31(1):48–54.
52. Barker T, Schneider ED, Dixon BM, Henriksen VT, Weaver LK. Supplemental vitamin D enhances the recovery in peak isometric force shortly after intense exercise. Nutr Metab. 2013 Jan;10(1):69.
53. Alami-Durante H, Cluzeaud M, Bazin D, Mazurais D, Zambonino-Infante JL. Dietary cholecalciferol regulates the recruitment and growth of skeletal muscle fibers and the expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and the myosin heavy chain in European sea bass larvae. J Nutr. 2011 Dec;141(12):2146–51.
54. Diamond T, Wong YK, Golombick T. Effect of oral cholecalciferol 2,000 versus 5,000 IU on serum vitamin D, PTH, bone and muscle strength in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Osteoporos Int J Establ Result Coop Eur Found Osteoporos Natl Osteoporos Found USA. 2013 Mar;24(3):1101–5.
55. Ceglia L, Niramitmahapanya S, da Silva Morais M, Rivas DA, Harris SS, Bischoff-Ferrari H, et al. A randomized study on the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle morphology and vitamin D receptor concentration in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):E1927–35.
56. Choi M, Park H, Cho S, Lee M. Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats. Cytokine. 2013 Jul;63(1):27–35.